Throwback Thursday: Fighting the 1950s polio epidemic
By Kristy Bleizeffer May 29, 2014
In 1953, the United States was still fighting a devastating outbreak of polio – a viral disease spread person to person. The 1952 polio epidemic was considered the worst outbreak in our country’s history.
Iron Lungs, like this one at Memorial Hospital dated to the early 1950s, were negative-pressure ventilators that enabled paralyzed polio patients to breathe. The air-tight chamber encased the thoracic cavity and air pumps controlled the pressure in the tank. When outside pressure dropped below the pressure in the lungs, the lungs expanded and pulled air in through the patient’s nose and mouth. When the outside pressure rose above the pressure in the lungs, the opposite occurred.
In 1953, about 30 Memorial Hospital nurses met every Tuesday in May for an “institute in polio nursing,” according to this May 21, 1953, Casper Star-Tribune article.
Vaccines have nearly eradicated polio in Western countries, and have greatly reduced it in the developing world. While Iron Lungs once filled hospital wards, they largely disappeared along with the virus. Now, positive-pressure ventilators (those that blow air into the patient’s airway) are more commonly used for patients that cannot breath on their own.
#ThrowbackThursday is a weekly series celebrating Wyoming Medical Center’s long and rich history in Natrona County. Special thanks to the Casper College Western History Center which archives the vast Wyoming Medical Center collection of newspaper articles, photographs and other memorabilia. If you recognize anyone from our #ThrowbackThursday posts or have more to add to the stories, please post a comment.